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There are a number of different special effects techniques used in filmmaking. Here are a list of some of them:
An effect in which action is filmed in studio conditions with a blue or green background. The background is then removed in the edit and replaced with images from the action sequence.
Ropes and wires are often used to suspend objects or characters in mid air or in order to move them around and defy gravity. The ropes and wires are either hidden by the camera angle or digitally removed in the edit.
Computer Generated Imagery (CGI)
The use of computer graphics and advanced animation to create characters and locations which are then intergrated with the real actors or sets.
Performers with specialist skills are often employed to carry out specific tasks or to stand in for the lead actors.
The use of controlled explosions or fire on set.
A small explosive placed under an actor's clothing which when detonated breaks through the clothing of the actor and releases blood to give the impression of a gunshot wound.
A technique where the performer or action is performed at a reasonably slow pace and filmed at twice or three time the speed. When the footage is replayed at 24 frames a second the action appears to take place at two or three times the pace.
After reading through, you should watch this link and then write a couple of paragraphs speculating as to which techniques are used.